At least 120 people are dead after the Indore-Patna Express derailed at 03:00 local time on Sunday (21:30 GMT Saturday), near the city of Kanpur.
The death toll could rise as workers reach the worst-hit parts of the train.
The cause of the crash is not known, though reports said a track fracture could be to blame.
Train accidents are fairly common in India, where much of the railway equipment is out of date.
Early on Monday the railway ministry published a list of names of injured passengers. Out of the 131 listed, 58 were said to be "grievously injured". Earlier reports quoted officials as saying more than 150 people were injured.