The company said it had "disabled offending accounts" and "removed fake pages" after users raised concerns they might have been hacked.
The email claimed to be from Google Docs, a service that allows people to share and edit documents online.
Google urged users not to click a link in the email and to report it through Google's email service Gmail.
It was not immediately clear how many people had been affected.
"We have taken action to protect users against an email impersonating Google Docs, and have disabled offending accounts," Google said in a statement.
"We've removed the fake pages, pushed updates through Safe Browsing, and our abuse team is working to prevent this kind of spoofing from happening again."
Phishing is an attempt to trick people into handing over their personal information by posing as a reputable company.