The 43-year-old died at home in Los Angeles with his wife and family by his side.
Boseman had not spoken publicly about his diagnosis.
"A true fighter, Chadwick persevered through it all, and brought you many of the films you have come to love so much," his family said in the statement.
"From Marshall to Da 5 Bloods, August Wilson's Ma Rainey's Black Bottom and several more - all were filmed during and between countless surgeries and chemotherapy. It was the honor of his career to bring King T'Challa to life in Black Panther."
Boseman first came to prominence playing real-life figures - baseball great Jackie Robinson in 2013's 42 then as musician James Brown in 2014's Get on Up.
However, it will be as the titular Black Panther in the blockbuster 2018 film he will be best remembered.
The film was the first superhero film to get a nomination for best picture at the Oscars.