He was 90.
The singer was found unresponsive at 12:40 local time (17:40 GMT) on Saturday, St Charles County police said in a statement. He could not be revived and was pronounced dead at 13:26.
Seen as one of the fathers of rock 'n' roll, he influenced generations of succeeding musicians, most notably The Beatles, the Rolling Stones and the Beach Boys.
Berry was known for trademark four-bar guitar introductions and quickfire lyrics that reflected the rebelliousness of 1950s teenagers. His hits included Johnny B Goode, Roll Over Beethoven and Sweet Little Sixteen.
However his only US and UK number one hit was My Ding-a-Ling, a novelty song replete with innuendo that was recorded at a gig in Coventry in 1972.
He received a lifetime achievement Grammy in 1984 and was among the first inductees to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1986.