The 84-year-old "responded well" to the treatment, which was performed under general anaesthetic, Vatican spokesman Matteo Bruni said.
It is the first time Pope Francis has been admitted to hospital since his election in 2013.
Earlier on Sunday, the Argentine pontiff addressed thousands of visitors in St Peter's Square.
In an earlier statement, the Vatican said Pope Francis was being treated at the Gemelli University Hospital for "symptomatic diverticular stenosis" of the colon.
Diverticular disease is a condition that involves bulges in the wall of the large intestine. This can lead to a narrowing of the colon.