McDonald's said it was temporarily closing its roughly 850 restaurants in Russia, while Starbucks also said its 100 coffee shops would shut.
McDonald's said there was "needless human suffering unfolding in Ukraine", and Coca-Cola called the war "tragic".
All three firms said they would continue to pay their staff.
McDonald's chief executive Chris Kempczinski said in a memo to staff: "The conflict in Ukraine and the humanitarian crisis in Europe has caused unspeakable suffering to innocent people." The company said it was "impossible to predict" when it would reopen.