The list includes Secretary of State Antony Blinken, Defence Secretary Lloyd Austin, press secretary Jen Psaki and other members of the administration.
But it also includes two surprises: former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and Mr Biden's son Hunter.
The measures block their entry into Russia and freeze any assets held in the country.
However, the ministry has said the sanctions will not impede necessary high-level contacts for the affected individuals.
Other names on the list are:
Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Mark Milley
National Security Adviser Jake Sullivan
Deputy National Security Adviser Daleep Singh
US Agency for International Development (USAID) Administrator Samantha Power
Deputy Secretary of the Treasury Wally Adeyemo
President of the Export-Import Bank of the US Reta Jo Lewis
The ministry has said it is applying sanctions "on the basis of reciprocity".
Russia is now the most sanctioned country in the world.
Western countries have already sanctioned top Russian officials, including President Vladimir Putin, Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov and Kremlin press secretary Dmitry Peskov.
On Tuesday, the US announced sanctions on 11 Russian defence leaders and signalled that it could levy sanctions against Alexander Lukashenko, the President of Moscow-allied Belarus.
Earlier, the UK slapped sanctions on another 370 Russian individuals, including former Russian leader Dmitry Medvedev.
President Biden is due to travel to Europe next week to attend an emergency Nato summit in Brussels where he will assert Washington's "iron-clad" backing to its allies, the White House said on Tuesday.